LETTERS And TREATIES

LETTER TO NEGUS, KING OF ETHIOPIA

LETTER TO ABU SUFYAN

SECOND LETTER TO THE KING OF ETHIOPIA

THIRD LETTER TO THE KING OF ETHIOPIA

LETTER TO HERACLES CAESAR

LETTER TO KHUSRO PERWEZ, EMPEROR OF FARS

LETTER TO HURMUZ

LETTER TO THE VICEGERENT OF EGYPT

LETTER TO HAUZA BIN ALI, GOVERNOR OF YAMAMA

LETTER TO HARIS GHASSANI, KING OF DAMISHQ (DAMASCUS)

LETTER TO MUNZIR BIN SAWA, GOVERNOR OF BAHRAIN

SECOND LETTER TO MUNZIR

LETTER TO JAIFER AND ABD, RULERS OF OMAN

LETTER TO THE SUCCESSOR OF ASHAMA THE NEGUS

LETTER TO THE KINGS OF HIMAYAR

SECOND LETTER TO THE KINGS OF THE HIMYAR

LETTER TO FARWAH, GOVERNOR OF MAAN

LETTER TO AMR BIN HAZM ANSARI GOVERNOR OF YEMEN

LETTER TO UKAIDIR, RULER OF DUMAT-UL-JANDAL

LETTERS TO THE POPE OF ROME

LETTER TO THE JEWS OF KHYBER

LETTER TO BUDAIL BIN WARAQA

LETTER TO THE PEOPLE OF ASLAM TRIBE.

LETTER TO THE PEOPLE OF TIHAMA RANGE

LETTER TO KHALID BIN ZIMAD-UL-AZDI

LETTER TO HILAL BIN UMAYYA, CHIEF OF BAHRAIN

LETTER TO USAIBUKHT BIN ABDULLAH, CHIEF OF HAJAR

LETTER TO BANU ABDULLAH

 

 More Letters

 

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

LETTER TO NEGUS, KING OF ETHIOPIA



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) Prophet of Allah to Negus King of Ethiopia.

I praise Allah, except Whom there is none to be worshipped, who is the Ruler of the world. He is innocent and pure free from all blemishes, defects, flaws, or shortcomings). He gives refuge and sustains all.

I do admit that Isa (Jesus) (A.S.) son of Mariam (Mary), was the soul from Allah and His word (Order), he was infused to Mariam, who was clean and proof against evil. And Isa(A.S.) was born of Mariam. Allah created him from His soul and breath in the same manner as He created Adam(A.S.) with His own hand. I invite you towards Allah the One who has no associate. Believe in Him and join me in obedience to Him. Follow me and accept my prophethood because I am the Messenger of Allah. I have wished - you well in conveying the message of Allah in all sincerity. It is up you to accept my sympathetic advice. Extend the same invitation to your subjects. I am sending my cousin Jaffer (Raziallah AnhoA.) with the other Muslims. When they reach you, treat them hospitably, by setting aside the vanity and pride of a ruler.

Peace be on him, who followed the right path.

Note: As mentioned earlier, after the Holy Prophet began to preach Islam, the Quraish became the bitterest enemies of Islam. In the beginning they taunted, teased and maltreated the Muslims. But by and by their opposition took the shape of tyranny. Their treatment of the Muslims, particularly of the poorer ones was so brutal, that they felt extremely unsafe in Makkah and feared annihilation at the hands of the Quraish. At that stage, (6th year before Hijri i.e. 614 A.D.) the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) allowed the Muslims to temporarily migrate to Ethiopia, as he expected a good treatment by the King of Ethiopia. The Muslims began to migrate to the neighbouring country of Ethiopia. This continued till the famous Migration of the Holy Prophet, after which the migrants began to return to Medinah The last caravan returned from Ethiopia in 7th Hijra - about 629 A.D. when the second Caravan went to Ethiopia, the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) addressed a letter to the King of Ethiopia.

The Quraish could not tolerate that the Muslims should live in peace even in Ethiopia. They sent a delegation to Negus and pointed out to him that the Muslims had a strange faith which was altogether new and requested that the Muslims should be sent back. The King concluded from the Muslims about their beliefs. On that occasion Jaffar (Raziallah Anho) made a very impressive speech, saying.

"They were an extremely ignorant and pagan nation who worshipped self-made idols. Debauchery, cruelty and eating the dead was their way of life, but Allah sent a Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) who changed their lives altogether. He admonished them to worship Allah only and to regard Him as their Master. He preached to them always to be truthful; and not to misappropriate a trust, treat neighbours kindly, avoid bloodshed and all that Allah has prohibited. Worship Allah, the One observe fasts and pay Zakat. This was the crime, for which their countrymen forced them to leave their hearths and homes and they had to take refuge in Ethiopia."

The King of Ethiopia was highly moved by the speech and clearly announced that he would not allow such pious people to be tyrannised.

The Muslims, thereafter, always had a deep regard for Ethiopia and never did they think of attacking that country. They conquered big countries like Iran, but never touched the neighbouring Ethiopia.
LETTER TO ABU SUFYAN



Received your letter. I know that you have ever been steeped in pride and arrogance against Allah the Supreme.

You have mentioned of an attack to be made on Medinah with a valiant army, which is bent on laying waste Medinah. Let it be clear to you that this depends on the Will of Allah! If He will so wish, He could deprive you of the power even to utter the names of Lat and Uzza. You are amazed that I did not know the ditch method(for defence). You should know that this method has been made known to me by Allah because your wrath and rage has reached such a point that you are bent on dilapidating Medinah.

You should know that far from your empty hopes being realised, time has now come when Lat and Uzza, Manat and Naela are shattered to pieces.

Note: When the Muslims, due to the unbearable oppression, migrated to Medinah, the Quraish started preparation to invade the City, so that the Muslims should not stay in peace. In the 2nd Hijri they invaded with one thousand strong army, whereas the Muslims numbered only 313. The combat took place at Badr. The Quraish incurred heavy losses and laid down arms. All their famous and brave leaders were killed. The second battle was fought at Uhud, in which the Muslims suffered heavily due to their not complying with the orders of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam). The combat was, however, indecisive. In the 5th Hijri, the Quraish collected a huge army of 10 thousand, which included the Jews of Khyber also. This time they hoped to crush the Muslims in the very first attack. The Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) had trenches dug in the north of Medinah and thus cut off the route of the Quraish. The latter were totally upset to see the trenches. Abu Sufyan, who was highly enraged, wrote a threatening letter to the Holy Prophet(Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam), in which he said that his big army would totally devastate Medinah. The above letter of the Holy Prophet(Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) was in reply thereto.

The Quraish besieged Medinah for several weeks, but could not capture it. One day a strong and violent wind blew which uprooted the tents of the Quriash. Their camels and horses ran away, and their cauldrons upturned. The result was that the Quraish were highly depressed and their courage gave way. The lost hope of a victory and left the battle field during the night. This was the last attack of the Qurasih on Medinah.
SECOND LETTER TO THE KING OF ETHIOPIA



In the name Of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

From Muhammad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) the Prophet of Allah to Negus, King of Ethiopia.

Peace be on him who follows the guidance. I praise Allah Who alone is to be worshipped. He is the Master of the entire universe. He is Sublime. Only He is the haven of peace and security. I testify that Isa (Jesus)son of Mariam (Mary) is the spirit of Allah and His word, which He communed to Mariam (Mary) the pious and thus she became the mother of Allah's Prophet Isa(A.S.).Thus Allah created him from His spirit and infused it into Mariam just as He made Adam (A.S.) with His powerful hand.

Now I invite you to accept the obedience, sympathy, and love of Allah Who is One and Who is without an associate. You should follow me and should believe in the message of Allah which I have brought.

I call you and your army towards Allah Who is worthy of all respect and esteem. I have thus discharged my duty of conveying His message and advice. You should accept it, May peace be on the followers of the guidance.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: As Negus continued to listen to the holy message, he was being influenced by it. As soon as the holy text was over, he kissed the letter with extreme fondness and placed it over his head. He sent the following reply:




To Muhammad, Prophet of Allah. May peace be on him.

From As'hama. the Negus.

May peace be on you 0 Prophet of Allah! May blessings and favours of Allah be on you. Allah, except Whom there is none worthy of worship, Who has shown me the way of Islam and has guided me.

O Prophet of Allah ! I had the honour of seeing your esteemed letter. Whatever you have written about Isa Jesus (A.S.) I swear by the Allah, Lord of earth and Heaven, that Isa (A.S.) is nothing more than that. I have well understood all these things which you have conveyed to me. Your cousin and his companions are my close companions.

I bear evidence that you are a true Prophet of Allah. I have taken bai'at (oath of allegiance to Allah and His Prophet) at the hand of your cousin, for the sake of Allah and have become a slave of Islam. O Allah's Prophet! I send my son Arha to you. If you will so order, I will present myself to you. May peace and blessings of Allah be on you.
THIRD LETTER TO THE KING OF ETHIOPIA



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

May peace be on you. You treated us nicely. We have complete trust in you. The thing, we had hoped from you, has been realised and are safe and sound from the thing, we had feared. There is no capability (to do a thing) except from Allah.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: The main object in sending the letter was to call back the refugees to Medinah. The Negus is stated have kept the holy letters in an ivory casket and said that as long as the holy letters were there, the people of Ethiopia should be safe and secure.
LETTER TO HERACLES CAESAR



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and Merciful

From Muhammad, who is the servant of Allah and His Prophet to Heracles Caesar.

Peace be on him, who follows the right path.

After this, I invite you to the fold of Islam. Therefore, if you desire security, accept Islam. If you accept Islam, Allah shall reward you doubly and if you refuse to do so, the responsibility for the transgression of the entire nation, shall be yours.

O people of the Book! Leaving aside all matters of differences and disputes, agree on a thing, which is equally incontrovertible both as you and we are concerned and it is that we should not worship any one else with Him, nor regard any one else except Allah as our Sustainer.

If you deny this, you must know that we believe in Oneness of Allah, in all circumstances.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: Just as in our time, there are two most powerful States which call themselves 'Super' powers; in the time of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) there were two most powerful States: One was Iran and the other Rome or Byzantium or Constantinople. The former was the biggest state of Asia and a cradle of a great civilisation. It was towards the east of Arabia. Towards the north west was the Roman Empire. The two States were contiguous. Rome is at present the Capital of Italy. The Arabs called Byzantium by the name of Rome.

Some years back when this letter was sent, the Iranians attacked Syria and defeated the Romans. There is a reference to it in the Quran. The Romans, in order to avenge themselves, made big preparations and defeated the Iranians. Although the Iranians were at that time very powerful and the Romans did seem to have a chance of a victory against them, the Quran prophesied a clear triumph for the Romans. Heracles came to Jerusalem in token of his gratefulness, It was here that he received the letter of the Holy Prophet(Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam). He ordered that somebody from Arabia, should be presented before him. Per chance Abu Sufyan was staying at Ghaza with his merchandise. The men of Caesar brought him from Ghaza.

Caesar held a grand court. He donned a Crown and sat on his throne. Then addressing the Arabs, he enquired as to who was the relative of the person who claimed himself to be a Prophet. Abu Sufyan said that he was related to the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam). The following dialogue then took place:

Caesar: To what sort of family does the Claimant to Prophethood belong?

Abu Sufyan: Is noble.

Caesar: Did some one else in the family claim Prophethood?

Abu Sufyan: No.

Caesar: Did someone from the family happen to be a King?

Abu Sufyan: No.

Caesar: Are the people who have accepted this religion, poor or influential?

Abu Sufyan: They are poor people.

Caesar: Are his followers growing in number or decreasing?

Abu Sufyan: They are growing.

Caesar: Have you ever experienced an untruthfulness from him?

Abu Sufyan: No.

Caesar: Does he ever break a promise or agreement?

Abu Sufyan: Thus far he has never done it. But it is to be seen if he adheres to the new peace pact which has been oncluded.

Caesar: Have you ever fought a battle against him?

Abu Sufyan: Yes.

Caesar: What was the result of the battle?

Abu Sufyan: Sometime we were victorious and sometime he was successful.

Caesar: What does he teach?

Abu Sufyan: He says, "Worship One God -- Allah. Associate none else with Allah. Say prayers. Take to piety. Speak the truth. Treat relatives with kindness.

After this dialogue Caesar remarked that the Prophets always belonged to noble families. Further he said that as nobody else from the family of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) laid claim to Prophethood, it was, therefore, clear that there was no hereditary influence involved in his claim to Prophethood. Similarly absence of any king in the family, proved that the Holy Prophet was not prompted by a desire of kingship. As He never spoke a lie, he could hardly be expected to lie about Allah. Caesar further observed that the followers of the Prophets, in the beginning, are poor and that a true religion goes on making progress. Also Prophets never cheat anybody. As he preached piety, cleanliness and worship of Allah alone, he should one day be a master of the place, he (Caesar) was occupying. Thereafter Caesar ordered that the letter of Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) be read.

The dialogue of Caesar, with Abu Sufyan, highly enraged the courtiers. The Caesar, therefore, sent away the Arabs from the court. The love of crown and throne and the opposition of the courtiers, however, did not allow Caesar to accept Islam. But his searching questions and his talk clearly show that he was convinced of the truthfulness of Islam, as he had correctly judged that a person who never in his life, uttered even a trifling lie, could hardly say anything wrong about Allah. He was also certain that worldly riches, splendour and ascendancy were not the aims and objects of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam), but the communication of he message of Islam to the entire world, was his mission.

When Caesar was about to return to Constantinople, he again advised his courtiers to follow the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) as he was the one, they were awaiting. He further mentioned that their books contained the description of the Holy Prophet, Muhammad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam), and these clearly and unequivocally indicate that he was the true Prophet of Allah. It was, therefore, in their own interest to follow the guidance given by the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam).

The courtiers, however, said that it would mean their acceptance of the over lordship of the Arabs, although their's was the biggest kingdom of the world and their nation the greatest nation of the world. Caesar, thereon, said that although they were not prepared to accept Islam then very shortly they would be overpowered by the Arabs. He was much displeased by the arrogant attitude of the courtiers and immediately left Syria. While departing he looked at the Syrian territory and said that he was leaving Syria for ever. And it was true, he was never to return to Syria.'
LETTER TO KHUSRO PERWEZ, EMPEROR OF FARS


In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah to Kisra, King of Fars

May peace be on him who follows the guidance, believes in Allah and his Prophet. I testify that there:is none worthy of worship except Allah, who is alone and without an associate and Muhammad is His Servant and Prophet. Allah has made me a Prophet and sent me for the entire world, in order that I may infuse the fear of Allah in every living person. Accept Islam and be secure. If you refuse, the sins of all the Zoroastrians shall be your responsibility.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: The shock which his false pride received and his rage at being thus addressed have been mentioned in some detail elsewhere.
LETTER TO HURMUZ



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah, to Hurmuz I invite you towards Islam. Accept Islam in order that you may get security in this world and the next.

Seal: Allah's Prpohet Muhammad

Note: The Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) while addressing a letter to Khusro Perwez, had also sent a letter to Hurmuz, who belonged to the Iranian royal family and was the maternal uncle of Sheroya. Although at that time he did not pay heed to the Holy letter, subsequently he embraced Islam.
LETTER TO THE VICEGERENT OF EGYPT



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad Servant of Allah and His Prophet

To Muqawqis, Vicegerent of Egypt

Peace be on him who has taken the right course. Thereafter, I invite you to accept Islam. Therefore, if you want security, accept Islam. If you accept Islam, Allah, the Sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, responsibility for the transgression of the entire nation shall be yours.

0 people of the Book! leaving aside all matters of difference and dispute, agree on a matter which is equally consistent between you and us and it is that we should not worship anyone except Allah and that we should neither associate anyone with Him, nor make anyone else as our god.

If you refuse it, you must know that we, in all circumstances, believe in Oneness of Allah.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: Muqawqis who was appointed as vicegerent of Egypt by the Roman Empire. He was a great scholar of his religion. Egypt had always been a great centre of civilisation and made great advances in various branches of art and astrology. It was also a commercial link between East and West. But like Iran, Egypt had also become morally depraved.

Muqawqis was highly affected by the sincerity of the letter and he remarked that it was the time that the awaited Prophet appeared, but that he was under the impression that he would be born in Syria. He further observed that from Torah and Bible, he had come to know that the Prophet would not eat of charity, but would accept presents and that the poor and indigent would be his companions. He ordered that the Holy letter should be placed in an ivory casket which should be preserved safely in the government treasury. He sent the following reply to the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam).



TO MUHAMMAD SON OF ABDULLAH

From Muqawqis

"I read your letter and understood what you have written. I know that the coming of a Prophet is still due. But I thought, he would be born in Syria -- I have treated your messenger with respect and honour. I am sending two maids for you as presents. These maids belong to a very respectable family amongst us. In addition I send for you clothes and a duldul (steed) for riding. May Allah bestow security on you.'"

Note: Just as Caesar could not benefit from the light of Islam; power and lust pulled him back from availing himself of the blessings of Islam. The gifts sent by Muqawqis were accepted by the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam).

The letter which was placed in an ivory casket by Muqawqis,

The letter which was placed in an ivory casket by Muqawqis, found its way into the Christian monastery of Akheem in Egypt. There a recluse pasted it on his Bible. The letter was written on a parchment. From there a French orientalist obtained it and sold it to Sultan Abdul Majeed Khan of Turkey, for a consideration of 300 Pounds. The Sultan had the Holy letter fixed in a golden frame and had it preserved in the treasury of the royal palace, along with other sacred relics.

High Muslim scholars have affirmed that the Holy letter was written by as high and sacred a personality as Abu Bakr Siddiq (Raziallah AnhoA.).

Muqawqis, like Caesar, too had a dialogue with Mugheera bin Sh'oba, an exalted companion of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam). Mugheera (Raziallah AnhoA.) said: "Once I went to the court of Muqawqis, who enquired of me, about the family of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam). I informed him that he belonged to a high and noble family. Muqawqis remarked that Prophets always belong to noble families. Then he asked if I had an experience of the truthfulness of the Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam). I told that he always spoke the truth. Therefore, in spite of our opposition to him, we call him Ameen (truthworthy). Muqawqis observed that a man who did not speak lies to men, how could he speak a lie about Allah? Then he enquired what sort of people were his followers and what did the Jews think of him. I replied that his followers were mostly poor, but the Jews were his bitter enemies. Muqawqis stated that the followers of the Prophets in the beginning are usually poor, and that he must be a , Prophet of Allah. He further stated that the Jews opposed him out of envy and jealousy, otherwise they must have been certain of his, truthfulness and that they too awaited a Prophet. The Messiah
(A.S.) also preached that following and submitting to the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) was essential and that whatever qualities of his had been mentioned, the same were the qualities of the earlier Prophets.

Mugheera (Raziallah AnhoA.) was highly impressed by the dialogue. On his return from Egypt, he happened to meet a great Christian scholar, from whom he enquired if he awaited a Prophet, and if so, what qualities of his were mentioned in Torah and Bible? The Christian scholar informed him in detail that indeed they awaited a Prophet, and he would be the last Prophet. Messiah (A.S.) preached to them that when that Prophet appeared, they would follow him. He further preached that the Prophet would be illiterate and an Arab and his name would be Ahmad and his features and characteristics would be as follows:

"Middling height; big eyes with red capillaries showing in them, his complexion would be red and white. He would use coarse clothes and eat ordinary food. He would not be afraid of the greatest power; whoever would fight against him, he would face him. His companions would be prepared to sacrifice their lives at his slightest indication, and would regard him dearer than their own offsprings, mothers, fathers and brothers. From one harem he would stay in another Harem whose land would be rocky and where date-palms would be growing in abundance. His faith would be that of Ibrahim (A.S.)! He shall not adopt the way of the arrogant. His Prophethood shall be for all. The entire earth shall be his prayer Carpet".

Mugheera wa so moved by talks that he went to the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) and accepted Islam.
LETTER TO HAUZA BIN ALI, GOVERNOR OF YAMAMA



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah --

To Hauza bin Ali

May peace be on him who follows the guidance. It may be clarified that my deen (faith) shall reach the boundaries of the entire Arabia and Iran and shall prevail. Therefore you should accept Islam. There in lies security.

I have nothing to do with your country. It shall, as before, remain under your jurisdiction.'

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad



REPLY OF THE GOVERNOR OF YAMAMA

'The deen (faith) towards which you invite me, is very good. I am a famous orator and poet. Therefore the Arabs highly respect me. If you include me in your government, I am prepared to follow you".

Note: The Holy Prophet did not accept the demand of Hauza. He usually refused such peremptory demands and would say that the matter was in the control of Allah, who gave His land to whoever he wanted.

A Christian scholar had advised Hauza to accept Islam and told him that the Arab Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) would not have deprived him of his lands. He had informed him that Isa (Jesus, A.S.) had given the good news in the Bible, that a Prophet would come. Hauza, however, could not overcome the fear of losing his country and did not accept Islam.
LETTER TO HARIS GHASSANI, KING OF DAMISHQ (DAMASCUS)



In the name OF ALLAH the Compassionate, the Merciful

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah --

To Haris Bin Abi Shimr

Peace be on him who follows the right path, believes in it and regards it as true.

I invite you to believe in One Allah, who has no associate. Your country would remain with you.'
Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: Haris, the King of Syria, belonged to Ghassani family of Arabia, which had settled in Syria towards the end of the 2nd century A.D. and by and by established its rule over the country.

Shuja (Raziallah AnhoA.) had the honour of taking the letter to Haris, happened to meet Muree, a courtier of the King. Muree enquired of Shuja, about the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) and was highly moved by the account of the Holy Prophet. He remarked that exactly the same account of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) was to be found in the Bible. He, therefore, accepted Islam but warned Shuja, not to mention his acceptance of Islam to any body.

Muree mentioned Shuja to the King, who called Shuja to his court and had the letter read. He was highly infuriated after listening to the letter and said, "who dares even look towards my country"? He ordered his army to make preparations. On his return, Haris gave an account of his meeting to the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) who said, "In his arrogance of kingship, he has declined to accept Islam, but his rule shall not last". Under the leadership of Caesar, Haris started war against Islam, soon after the victory of Makkah, but ultimately the Ghassani rule was effaced from Syria in the 14th Hijra i.e. 625 A.D.
LETTER TO MUNZIR BIN SAWA, GOVERNOR OF BAHRAIN



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah --

To Munzir bin Sawa

May peace be on you! I praise Allah, Who is One and there none to be worshipped but except Him. I bear evidence to the Oneness of Allah and that I am a servant of Allah and His Prophet.

Thereafter I remind you of Allah. Whoever accepts admonition, does it for his own good.

Whoever followed my messengers and acted in accordance their guidance; he, in fact, accepted my advice.

My messengers have highly praised your behaviour. You shall continue in your present office. You should remain faithful to and His Prophet.

I accept your recommendation regarding the people of Bahrain. I forgive the offences of the offenders. Therefore, you may also forgive them.

Of the people of Bahrain whoever want to continue in their Jewish or Majusi faith, should be made to pay Jizia.'

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

The above letter was written in reply to the following letter Munzir Bin Sawa:

11.(a) "Allah's Prophet! I received your injunctions. Prior to this, I have also seen the letter, you wrote to the people of Bahrain, extending to them an invitation to Islam. I accept Islam out of my own will.

Some of the people of Bahrain like Islam and entered the Islamic fold, while others continue in their old faith. In my country, there live Zoroastrians and Jews. You may inform me of the treatment which is to be extended to them".'

It may be mentioned here that Bahrain was under the jurisdiction of Iran in the 6th Century A.D. Munzir bin Sawa was the Iranian Governor of Bahrain. The latter received the message of Islam and accepted it.
SECOND LETTER TO MUNZIR



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and the Merciful

Peace be on you. I am sending Abu Huraira and Qudama (Raziallah AnhoA.) to you. You may hand over to them, whatever amount of Ush'r, Zakat and Jiziya, you have collected in your area.

Allah's Seal: Prophet Muhammad
LETTER TO JAIFER AND 'ABD, RULERS OF OMAN



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah--

To Jaifer and Abd.

Peace be on him who adopts the right course. There-after, I invite both of you to Islam. Embrace Islam. Therein lies security! Allah has sent me as a Prophet to his creatures, in order that I may instil fear of Allah in His disobedient creatures and thus there may be left no excuse for those who deny Allah.

My prophethood is about to reach your country. If you two accept Islam, your country will, as usual, remain with you. But if you refuse or object, it is a perishable thing.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: Jaifer and 'Abd accepted Islam after a slight hesitation and said that the Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam), himself acted before ordering others to act and before prohibiting others from a thing, himself abstained from it. They further observed that if he attained victory, he was not proud; and overpowered, he did not deflect from his objective. They further said that the Prophet always fulfilled promises. They testified that he was the Prophet of Allah.
LETTER TO THE SUCCESSOR OF AS'HAMA THE NEGUS



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah -

To Negus, King of Ethiopia.

His Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam).

I bear witness that there is none to be worshipped except Allah. No one is His associate or partner. He does not stand in need of a wife or children. And I affirm that I am his servant and his Prophet.

I invite you to believe in Allah who is One. If you want security, accept Islam.

O people of the Book! Ignore all matters of difference and dispute, and agree to a thing to which you and we are equally committed, and it is that we should not worship anyone except Allah. And neither should we associate anyone else with Him nor should we regard anyone else as our Sustainer. If they object to it, tell them, "you will bear witness that we believe in Allah."'

If you will not accept these, the responsibility of the transgression of your Christian people shall be yours.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

The Negus did not accept Islam. He also did not send a reply to the letter.
LETTER TO THE KINGS OF HIMAYAR



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah--,

To Haris, etc.

May peace be on you, till you believe in Allah and His Prophet

Undoubtedly Allah is He Who is unique and Who has no associate. he sent Musa (Moses,A.S.) with miracles and created Isa (Jesus, A.S.) by His word. But the Jews say that "Uzair is son of Allah" and the Christians say that Isa (A.S.) is son of Allah and is one out of the three".

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: The Kings of Himyar after listening to the letter, gladly accepted Islam, sent a delegation to the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) to communicate the news of their acceptance of Islam. The Himyar dynasty ruled over the southern part of Yemen, in the time of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam). Yemen then comprised the south Western portion of Arabia and its area was over 127 thousand square miles. The two brothers whom the Holy Prophet(Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) addressed a letter also ruled over parts of Yemen.
SECOND LETTER TO THE KINGS OF THE HIMYAR



'The Holy Prophet expressed his deep sense of joy at the acceptance of Islam by the Kings of Himyar and communicated to them injunctions about Zakat and Jizia in the letter that follows:

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah,

To Kings of Himyar

May peace be on you. I praise Allah, except Whom there is none to be worshipped.

Your messengers reached here at the time of my return from Room (Byzantium). They delivered your message; related details of your war against the infidels and conditions existing there. Allah has honoured you with His guidance. You should make the obedience of Allah and His Prophet obligatory on you.

Keep saying prayers, paying Zakat and fifth of the benefits gained in religious wars, for Allah and His Prophet.

Allah has fixed the payment of charity money on landed property and it is Ushr (One tenth of the produce in rainfed; and canal irrigated lands and in the case of well-irrigated lands, it is at the rate of half Ushr(One twentieth). As Zakat per 40 camels one she-camel; per 30 camels, one young camel; per 5 camels a goat and per 10 camels two goats, be given.

A young goat per 40 sheep, and goats. This is the rate of Zakat on cattle.

This rate of Zakat has been made obligatory on the Muslims. Whoever gives more than this, it is a source of more Sawa Recompense) for him.

But whoever pays the fixed amount; and proclaims his (acceptance of) Islam and helps the Muslims against infidels is a Muslim. Similarly all the duties and responsibilities of the Muslims shall be applicable to him.

For the fulfilment of this promise, I give the guarantee of Allah and His Prophet.

If a Jew or a Christian embraces Islam, he shall be treated in the same manner. Whoever wishes to continue in Jewish or Christian religion, shall not be forced to change his religion, but he shall have to pay Jiziya, the rate of which for each adult is one dinar, or its equivalent in value, cloth of the same value. Whoever shall pay this amount to the Prophet of Allah (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam), the responsibility for his protection shall be that of Allah and His Prophet. Whoever refuses Jiziya, shall be regarded as an enemy of Allah and His Prophet.'

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad
LETTER TO FARWAH, GOVERNOR OF M'AAN



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah--

To Farwah bin 'Amar

Your messenger came to me and delivered the presents you sent me, gave me an account of yourself and conveyed to me the good news of your acceptance of Islam.

Allah as honoured you with His guidance. If you continue to remain obedient to Allah and His Prophet and remain faithful to them, keep saying prayers and paying Zakat, it is the greatest blessing of Allah; and take it that Allah has blessed you with His guidance.

Allah 's Seal: Prophet Muhammad

Note: Farwah had been appointed as Governor of M'aan by the Byzantine government. M'aan which now forms part of Jordan, is situated towards the Northwest of Arabia. When Caesar came to know of the acceptance of Islam by Farwah, he reprimanded him and ordered him to give up his new faith, otherwise he threatened to remove him from his office. But Farwah boldly refused. Thereon Caesar imprisoned him, but seeing that even the hardships of the prison could not deflect him resolution, he ordered that Farwah should be put to death. His last words were "Convey the message to the Holy Prophet(peace be on him), that even my bones remained subservient to Allah"
LETTER TO 'AMR BIN HAZM ANSARI GOVERNOR OF YEMEN



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

This writing from the side of Allah the Great and His Prophet, is given to 'Amr bin Hazm Ansari and has been written at the time of his deputation to Yemen.

"Allah, the Sublime has said,

'O faithful ones! Fulfil your promise'

I impress on him that in every matter, he should fear Allah, for "Allah is with those, who fear Him, and take to virtue". I have admonished 'Amr bin Hazm (Raziallah AnhoA.) to receive the due to Allah, according to His order. Treat the people with kindness and order them to do good deeds. Teach them the Holy Quran and make them understand the fundamentals of Islam. Only he who is clean, should touch the Quran. The people should be prohibited from evils. They should be made aware of their rights and duties. In ordering them to do good deeds, the people should be treated politely. But there should be no hesitation in taking to task the one who is guilty of oppression and outrage, as Allah, the Sublime does not like cruelty. He has strictly prohibited tyranny. Allah sends curses on tyrants.

People should be informed of the actions and ways which lead to Paradise and warned of the actions which take a person to Hell.

All the people should be treated nicely, in order that they get to understand the elements of the faith adequately.

The tenets of Hajj should also be told in detail in Farz. (essentially and obligatory) and Sunnat (what is lesser essential, but was done by the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) should be clearly described. All the commands of-Allah in respect of Hajj and Umra should be made known to the people.

People should be prohibited from saying prayers in such clothes, as do not cover the body and during the prayer there is a risk of the private parts being exposed. The instructions in respect of Wudu (ablution) should be fully explained. It is ordered that the prayers should be offered at the fixed times and it is directed that the Ruku (bowing before Allah during the prayer) should be completely performed. And during the prayers, there should be Riqqat(tendency to repent and weep). The Fajr(morning) prayers should be said early in the morning (much before sunrise). The Zuh'r(early afternoon) prayer should be offered after the sun pasts its zenith and begins to decline. The 'Asr (late afternoon) prayer offered after the shadow gets oblique. Maghrib (evening) prayer should be offered immediately after the sunset, and should not be delayed till the stars appear in the sky. Isha(night) prayer should be said in the first part of night.

Regarding Friday prayers, it is ordered that when there is Azaan (call for prayers), one should immediately leave to say the prayers and before leaving for the Friday prayers, bath taken.

From the goods gained in religious wars, Khums (fifth party) be paid, in the way of Allah. From the produce of land of every Muslim, a quantity equal to Ush'r(one tenth)should be charged by should be charged half of Ush'r (one twentieth).

As for cattle, two goats be taken per 10 camels and four goats per 20 camels. One cow per 40 cows and one calf per 30 cows and one goat per 40 goats.

This rate has been made obligatory on the Muslims, as Zakat, by Allah. Whoever pays more, shall deserve greater recompense.

People should not call one another for help in war, in the name of their tribe and family. A person should be helped only for the sake of Allah the One. And whoever invites people to war in the name of tribe or family only instead of Allah, such a rioter should be put to an end.

Invitation to war is only for Allah who is One. If any Jew or Christian embraces Islam of his own free will and with a sincere heart and accepts the way of Allah, he is a Muslim. His rights and duties shall be the same as those of other Muslims.

And whoever continues to adhere to his Jewish or Christian religion, should never be compelled to change his religion. But for each adult of them, a dinar should be levied, which shall be received; annually in cash or kind. Cloth of this value can also be accepted.

Whoever refuses to pay this amount, should be regarded as an enemy of Allah, His Prophet and all the Muslims.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: 'Amr(Raziallah AnhoA.)not only preserved this document, but also collected the other letters of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) sent to the different clans, particularly of Jews, Christians and had them bound into a volume. This subsequently served as an authentic source of information, particularly reg. Zakat, Charities, rights of the Muslims and non-Muslims, their duties, etc.
LETTER TO UKAIDIR, RULER OF DUMAT-UL-JANDAL



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah --

To Ukaidir and people of Duma.

Now that they have embraced Islam and given up idol worship.

The lands of the ponds of Duma, non-agricultural lands, un-owned and nazool(state property) lands, armours and parts, shall be for us.

All rivers, springs, cultivated lands, trees, grass, etc., shall be the property of the people of Duma.

Zakat shall not be levied on cattle, except those which graze in meadows. Unaccounted for cattle, shall not be included in Zakat.

Prayers shall be offered on time, and Zakat paid honestly. faithfulness is assured from our side to which Allah and all the Muslims present, bear witness.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: Dumatul Jandal, at present known as Jauf, a big caravan centre, is situated half way between Syria and Medinah. Kanana, a clan of Arabia lived there. Although the clan was Arab, it had accepted Christianity under the influence of the Roman Empire. Caesar had appointed Ukaidir as the ruler of Duma, on his behalf. Ukaidir embraced Islam gladly and voluntarily.
LETTERS TO THE POPE OF ROME



In the name Of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Peace be on him, who believes in Allah. I am of the faith that Isa (Jesus A.S.) son of Mariam (Mary) was the spirit of Allah and His word! Allah infused him in the pious Mariam.

I believe in Allah, all His Books and His Commands which he sent to Me and which He sent to Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq and Yaqub (A.S.) and their descendants. I also believe in what was given to Musa and Isa (A.S.) and other prophets by Allah! In faith and belief, we do not differentiate in accepting any of the prophets. We are Muslims (meaning obedient to Allah) Peace be on him who follows the guidance.'

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: Along with the letter to Caesar, the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) had also sent a letter to the Pope. The latter testified to his Prophethood and observed, "No doubt, he is a true Prophet". Thereafter he addressed a congregation in the cathedral and informed the people that he had received a letter from the Arabian Prophet Ahmad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) who had invited them to accept the true faith of Allah, the One. He then testified that there is no god save Allah and that Ahmad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) was the servant and prophet of Allah. The people were highly infuriated to hear this truthful declaration and they beat him so much that he died.
LETTER TO THE JEWS OF KHYBER



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

From Muhammad, the Prophet of Allah who is like Moosa (Moses A.S.) a prophet and messenger and he testifies to what Moosa (A.S.) had brought.

0 people of Torah, has Allah not stated in the Torah that "Muhammad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) is a Prophet of Allah. The people who will be with him, shall be harsh towards the enemies of Allah. And amongst themselves, they shall be kind and loving. They shall bow and prostrate before Allah. And they shall seek His bounty and goodwill".

I ask you to swear by Allah, who sent Torah for you and who made your forefathers eat 'mann, and 'Salva' and dried sea for them and rid them of the tyranny of pharaoh. It is not written in Torah that you should believe in me?

After the explanation about me in the Torah, do guidance and transgression become apparent?

Therefore I invite you towards Allah and His Prophet.'

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: The Jews and Christians knew well that a prophet would come and they were awaiting his appearance. The Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) was absolutely certain of the prophesy about him in the Torah.
LETTER TO BUDAIL BIN WARAQA



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah--

To Budail bin Waraqa, etc.

I praise Allah except whom there is no god.

Thereafter, you should know that the people of Tihama are the dearest to me and in relationship are the nearest to me. Whatever I like myself, I like for the one who migrates from amongst you, although he may migrate to a place in his own region. I shall deserve the same treatment as the people of Tihama.

I value the people of Tihama and nothing would be done from my side, as is not in accordance with their dignity.

At the time of my treaty with the tribes of Arabia, your people should feel secure.

Alqama son of Ulasa and Houza's two sons have already embraced Islam and both of them have migrated, and have taken bai'at(vow) on the same terms as the people of Ikrama have done. We are all equal as regards Halal permissible) and Haram (forbidden) By Allah, I do not say anything incorrect to you. Allah shall certainly love you.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) had entered into a treaty with the Khuza'a tribe to help each other and descendants of each other. The tribe, therefore, always helped the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) The tribe informed the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) of the invasion by the Quraish and the Jews, on Medinah.

The tribe lived in the Tihama Valley lying towards the South Makkah, along the Red Sea and the Serat Mountain. Aslam was a branch of this tribe. Its people presented themselves to the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) and accepted Islam. The Prophet wrote the to the tribe.
LETTER TO THE PEOPLE OF ASLAM TRIBE.



In the name Of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

1. Whoever from the Aslam tribe believes in Allah, says prayers, pays Zakat and is sincere to the deen of Allah, shall be helped, if somebody attacks them.

2. When the Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) needs their help, it shall be obligatory on them to help him.

3. Their villagers shall have the same rights, as those of their citizens.

4. These people can migrate wherever they like.

Allah's Seal: Prophet Muhammad
LETTER TO THE PEOPLE OF TIHAMA RANGE



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah

To the free people of Allah

All those who believe in Allah, offer prayers, and pay Zakat are free from bondage. Muhammad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) is their ruler. They shall not be sent back, except to their own tribes and they shall not be answerable for their past crimes. The people from whom their debt is due, shall be made to pay it.

These people shall not be subjected to any oppression or outrage. Whoever embraces Islam, shall be the responsibility of Allah and Prophet Muhammad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) in all the matters mentioned above.

May peace be on you.'

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: As mentioned earlier, Tihama is a long valley lying between the Red Sea and Serat Hill. In the mountain range of Tihama lived people belonging to a number of Arabian tribes. They had no regular occupation or calling, but resorted to looting and waylaying. They sent a delegation to the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) who assured them that their past crimes would be condoned and their slaves would be free.
LETTER TO KHALID BIN ZIMAD-UL-AZDI



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

The cultivated lands in the possession of Khalid bin Zimadul-Azdi at the time of embracing Islam, shall remain his property, provided he believes in Allah, Who does not have an associate, testifies that Muhammad is His servant and Prophet; says prayers, Zakat, keep fasts of the month of Ramazan and performs Hajj introduces new things in religion, nor doubts the righteousness of Islam; shall remain faithful to Allah and His Prophet; befriend friends of Allah and is hostile to His enemies.

It is obligatory on Prophet Muhammad (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) to guard then just as he guards his life and property and that of his kith and kin.

Allah and His Prophet are responsible for Khalid-ul-Azdi, provided there is no disloyalty on his part.'

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: Prior to the advent of Islam, Khalid's father Zimad-ul-Azdi, who belonged to Yemen, practised medicine and surgery. During the course of the Prophethood of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) he happened to visit Makkah and saw a crowd of street urchins following the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) and calling him;Majnoon(mad). Zimad, thereafter, went to the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) and informed him that he could cure madness. The Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) spoke a few impressive sentences in praise of Allah, which impressed Zimad to such a degree that he embraced Islam immediately. The Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) wrote the above letter to Khalid.
LETTER TO HILAL BIN UMAYYA, CHIEF OF BAHRAIN



In the name Of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

May peace be on you. I praise Allah who is one and there is no associate of His.

I invite you to believe in Allah, the One. Obey Allah, and enter the fold of Islam. This is the best way for you, and security is for him who follows the straight course.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad
LETTER TO USAIBUKHT BIN ABDULLAH, CHIEF OF HAJAR



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

From Muhammad, Prophet of Allah

To Usaibukht Bin Abdullah, Chief of Hajar.

Aq'r'a brought your letter and made a recommendation on of your tribe. I have accepted his recommendation. I convey you the good news that I agree to what you have asked for and you have demanded, in accordance with your wishes. but to it seems reasonable that you explain your demands.

If you come here, you will be honoured. Even if you are to come, there is respect for you in my heart.

Although I do not seek any present, but if you want to send me a present, I shall gladly accept it.

My workers have spoken of high and esteemed level of your rank. I exhort you to give full regard to prayers, Zakat and relationship with the Muslims.

I have proposed the name of Banu Abdullah for your community. You should order your people to say prayers and do good deeds and obtain for yourself the happy news.

May peace be on you and your community of believers.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

Note: Usaibukht also called Sehbukht, was the Chieftain of Hajar which was, at one time, a big city and is a part of the Arabian province of Al-Hisa and is situated on the Persian Gulf. Usaibukht gladly embraced Islam. The Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) also addressed the following letter to Banu Abdullah.
LETTER TO BANU ABDULLAH



In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

I admonish your people to remain devoted to Allah and not to got astray after receiving guidance and not to lean towards. deviation after accepting the right course.


Your delegation has come to me. I have treated it in the manner which pleased it.

I did not consider it proper to oust you from Hajar. I have accepted the request of your delegation. You should remember the munificence with which Allah has blessed you. I have come to know whatever you people have done. Whoever, from amongst you, will remain faithful, shall not be implicated in the crimes of rioting of others.

When my messengers reach you, do help them in the work of Allah. Whoever from amongst you will perform a virtuous act, his good action will not be overlooked either by Allah, or by me.

Security is for him who follows the right path.

Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad

After the conquest of Makkah, the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wasallam) addressed letters which follow, to a number of tribes, many of whom had already accepted Islam.

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